Rheumatoid arthritis and the Foot

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the joints, causing inflammation and pain. It can affect any joint in the body, including those in the feet. When RA affects the foot, it can lead to various symptoms and complications.

  1. Joint Inflammation: RA typically starts with inflammation in the synovium, the lining of the joint, which can lead to joint pain, swelling, and stiffness. In the feet, commonly affected joints include the smaller joints, such as those in the toes and the midfoot.
  2. Deformities: Over time, untreated or poorly managed RA can lead to joint deformities in the feet. Common deformities include hammer toes (toes that become permanently bent), claw toes (toes that curl downward), and bunions (a bony bump at the base of the big toe).
  3. Joint Erosion: RA can cause the cartilage and bone within the affected joints to erode, leading to a loss of joint space. This can result in reduced joint mobility and pain.
  4. Tendon Involvement: RA can also affect the tendons in the foot, leading to inflammation and weakening. Tendon involvement can result in problems like Achilles tendonitis or posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.
  5. Nodules: Some individuals with RA may develop subcutaneous nodules, which are firm lumps that can form on the bottom of the foot or elsewhere. These nodules are a sign of more severe RA and can be painful.
  6. Pain and Discomfort: Foot pain and discomfort are common symptoms of RA in the feet. This pain can make it difficult to walk or wear certain types of footwear.
  7. Limited Mobility: As the disease progresses and the joints are affected, it can limit your mobility and ability to perform daily activities. Walking and standing for extended periods can become challenging.
  8. Ulcers and Skin Problems: Reduced circulation and sensation in the feet, combined with deformities, can increase the risk of foot ulcers and skin problems. It’s important to care for your feet and inspect them regularly for any signs of issues.
  9. Impact on Gait: RA can affect your gait and the way you walk due to joint pain and deformities. This altered gait can, in turn, lead to other musculoskeletal problems and discomfort in other parts of the body.
  10. Treatment: Managing RA in the foot involves a combination of medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes. Medications may include disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) to slow the progression of the disease, as well as pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs. Physical therapy can help maintain joint function and mobility. Custom orthotics or supportive footwear may be recommended to alleviate foot pain and improve comfort.

Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to manage RA effectively and minimize its impact on the feet and overall quality of life. If you suspect you have rheumatoid arthritis or are experiencing foot pain and other symptoms, consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.